I will review a puzzle appearing in the AdS/CFT correspondence where
products of CFT partition functions don’t factorize when computed from
the bulk due to the presence of Euclidean wormholes. It is currently an
open question on whether these wormholes should contribute to the path
integral for definite microscopic CFTs where no disorder average is
taken. In an attempt to explain the appearance of these wormholes, I
will propose an ansatz for OPE coefficients of chaotic CFTs that
generalizes the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis and treats heavy
states as random variables. Applying this ansatz to compute the square
of a genus-2 partition function will reproduce the contribution of the
genus-2 wormhole described by Maoz and Maldacena many years ago.
Finally, I will argue that gravitational computations using the
low-energy effective action can only ever capture the random nature of
the OPE coefficients.
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